United Nations 1540 Committee of Experts
Rosteknadzor, Russian Federation
Matthew Bunn is an Associate Professor at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. His research interests include nuclear theft and terrorism; nuclear proliferation and measures to control it; and the future of nuclear energy and its fuel cycle. Before joining the Kennedy School in January 1997, he served for three years as an adviser to the Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he played a major role in U.S. policies related to the control and disposition of weapons-usable nuclear materials in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Previously, Bunn was at the National Academy of Sciences, where he directed the two-volume study Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. He is the winner of the American Physical Society’s Joseph A. Burton Forum Award for “outstanding contributions in helping to formulate policies to decrease the risks of theft of nuclear weapons and nuclear materials,” and the Federation of American Scientists’ Hans Bethe Award for “science in service to a more secure world,” and is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the Boards of Directors of the Arms Control Association and the Partnership for Global Security, and serves on the Committee on the Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, a joint committee of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Matt Bunn is the author or co-author of more than a hundred books and book-length technical reports (most recently including Securing the Bomb 2007), and scores of articles in publications ranging from Science and Nuclear Technology to Foreign Policy and The Washington Post. He appears regularly on television and radio.
Yvan De Mesmaeker
Yvan De Mesmaeker has a Master Degree in Engineering from the University of Brussels (VUB) and specialized at the Universities of Liège (ULg), Brussels (ULB) and Mons. He broadened his education with studies in Financial Analysis (ICHEC), International Marketing and Corporate Security. He gained insights in geopolitical issues trough the Hautes Etudes de Sécurité et de Défense at the Institut Royal Supérieur de Défense (IRSD). In 1991, after having assumed several functions in multinational corporations (Fichet, Philips and Glaverbel) De Mesmaeker founded Omega Risk, an independent Audit & Consultancy practice advising Corporations and Institutions on security issues and emergency response. His main fields of expertise are the Protection of the Critical Infrastructure, Corporate Resilience, Information Security and Executive Protection Programs. In 2005 he was appointed Secretary General of the European Corporate Security Association - ECSA.
Other responsibilities include:
Lecturer at the National Academy for Senior Police Officers
Expert Witness for the Public Prosecutors Office and the Courts of Law
Expert for the Control Committee on the Intelligence Services
Trainee Supervisor at the School for Criminology of the Free University of Brussels
Co Chairman of the Working Group on the Protection of the Scientific & Economic Potential – FEB Corporate Security Commission
Coordinator in the FEB Alert Network
Member of the BE and NL Steering Group of the U.S. Department of State Overseas Security Advisory Council - OSAC
Appointed as the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Associate Administrator for Defense Nuclear Security in 2005, William Desmond is responsible for the development, implementation, and oversight of the NNSA-wide security program and management of the annual NNSA security budget of $700 million. Mr. Desmond has over 40 years of field and headquarters security experience, and has held a variety of senior-level positions in the department. His experience outside the department includes service as a senior advisor for security at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
He is a graduate of Monsignor Coyle High School in Taunton, MA, the College of the Holy Cross, and Florida State University.
Since May 2005, Mr. Gregoric has been responsible for the area of prevention in the IAEA Office of Nuclear Security in Vienna. Previously, he was the Head of the Slovenian Delegation to Several IAEA General Conferences and Diplomatic Conferences in the nuclear field, and was Governor of Slovenia to the IAEA Board of Governors in 1997-1998 and Chairman from 1998 to1999. Mr. Gregoric also chaired the IAEA Working Group to explore whether there was a need to amend the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in 2000-2001. He also served as President of the Second Review Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety in Vienna in 2002, and Director of BOMVIC (Baghdad Ongoing Monitoring Verification and Inspection Centre 2002-2003) of UNMOVIC in 2002-2003.
Mr. Gregoric was also director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration from 1989 to 2002 and was Head of Technology Transfer Office at Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia from 2003 to 2005. He graduated from University of Ljubljana, Slovenia in Mechanical engineering and received his Master of Science degree on Heat and Mass transfer at Oregon State University, USA. He also conducted research on Nuclear Safety and Termohydraulics at Josef Stefan Institute from 1978 to1989.
A chemical engineer by training, Mr. Gutschmidt now serves as an independent consultant on protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Previously, he worked for over three decades at the Institute for Reactor Safety (GRS) where he focused on scientific-technical expertise for reactor safety, primarily under commission for the German government. During this time, he also served as the head of the Physical Protection Division at GRS with responsibilities that included preparation and participation in national and international workshops and seminars on physical protection.
Connie Hall has over 30 years experience in the field of materials control and accountability (MC&A). Connie has a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration, with a major in accounting. Her work experience includes managing the MC&A programs at the Y-12 National Security Complex and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Other work experience includes manager of the Material Surveillance and Maintenance Program and project manager of the Enriched Uranium Deposit Removal Project at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and program manager for the Materials Recycle and Recovery Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex. Connie is now employed by Haselwood Enterprises, Inc., in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Since November 2002, Mr. Huizenga has served as the Assistant Deputy Administrator for the Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation (IMPC) at the National Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. With an annual budget of approximately $600 million dollars, his program is responsible for reducing the worldwide threat of nuclear terrorism by working cooperatively with countries to secure nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials and enhance the detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. Nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) efforts are 85% complete at 123 sites in Russia and in other former Soviet states, with security upgrades underway at the balance of sites. The second major element of Mr. Huizenga’s program, the Second Line of Defense, is focused on border and maritime security and includes the Megaports Initiative and the Secure Freight Initiative, a joint program with the Department of Homeland Security. Cooperative activity is ongoing with over 40 countries worldwide to install radiation detection equipment at 450 key land borders, airports, and over 75 major seaports. Under this effort the U.S. provides stationary radiation portal monitors, as well as handheld radioisotope identifiers to be used by border guards and customs agents. An extensive training program is also provided to maximize the effectiveness of the program.
Prior to his tenure at IMPC, Mr. Huizenga was the Deputy Director of the Office of International Nuclear Safety and Cooperation, serving from February 2002 until November 2002. Mr. Huizenga was instrumental in standing up the Elimination of Weapons Grade Plutonium Production program, designed to shut down the last Russian plutonium production reactors. He also initiated a program to enhance the safety and security of research reactors around the world, and chaired a joint U.S. - Russian experts group to develop proposals to reduce inventories of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium.
Mr. Huizenga’s career at the U.S. Department of Energy started in 1990 and includes a long and successful leadership role at the Office of Environmental Management (EM), where he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for the program designed to cleanup sites associated with Cold War nuclear weapons production.
Mr. Huizenga lives in Arlington, Virginia with his wife and two children.
Dr. Alexander Izmaylov
Alexander Izmaylov graduated from Moscow Physical Engineering Institute as the specialist on Nuclear Reactor Control Systems in 1967. He has been working in Russian Nuclear Industry for 34 years. Presently he is the Deputy Director of the Eleron Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise, Russian Federation. His sphere of activities is physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities (vulnerability analyses and conceptual design). His list of accomplishments include: Doctor of Science (Technology); Professor; President of the INMM Russian Federation (RF) Chapter and Senior Member of INMM; Leader of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Chapter of the Russian Nuclear Society; The Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation; The RF Government Prize Winner in Science & Technology.
Mr. Joly is Director of the Nuclear Defense Expertise operational unit at the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France that provides support to the French competent authorities in the following fields: Protection and control of nuclear materials and other sensitive materials (nuclear, chemical and biological); Protection of facilities, transport and nuclear materials against malevolent acts and; Safety and radiological protection of defense-related facilities. In 1999 he was Assistant Manager of the IRSN Environmental Protection Department where he oversaw all monitoring programs. Before joining IRSN, he worked at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) from 1977 to 1995. He went on to join the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) where he would spend four years. Whilst with the CEA, he began his career by developing thermal computer codes, before going on to help coordinate Fast-neuron Reactors for the reactor block. His work in the field of fuel cycles later went on to focus on laser enrichment programs for which he was head of an experimentation department. At the ASN, he was Deputy Assistant Director, responsible for the fuel cycle facilities and the transport of radioactive materials.
Melissa Krupa is a Team Leader in the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, Office International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). She is responsible for managing the multilateral and physical protection programs within NA-243. The multilateral program includes Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and Zangger Committee issues, and other nonproliferation supplier aspects, including the President’s Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI). Ms. Krupa represents NNSA and the USG in the international negotiations of the NSG and Zangger Committee. She continues to lead various multilateral and bilateral negotiations and delegations overseas. Her recent efforts in the NSG have led to the advancement of the President’s 2004 nonproliferation initiatives, and other efforts to strengthen the NSG guidelines and control lists. She is also help to advance the Joint U.S./India Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative within the NSG. She manages a number of NA-243 programs at the National Laboratories related to nuclear supplier issues, counter-proliferation, interdiction, and strengthening physical protection of nuclear material and facilities.
Mr. Kevin R. Leifheit is the Program Manager, Nuclear Security Program. He has been with the Office of Defense Nuclear Security since October 2005. In his current assignment Mr. Leifheit is responsible for the overall management of the nuclear security protection program for the Program Requirements Office within NNSA’s Defense Nuclear Security organization. In this role he is responsible for the establishment of all NNSA Design Basis Threat policy requirements for physical security, as well as the development of the site-level resource requirements that enable execution of the NNSA physical security mission. Mr. Leifheit is a key participant in the NNSA effort to improve nuclear materials security around the globe – participating in numerous international exchanges on DBT development and improvement in national physical security programs.
In his previous position, Mr. Leifheit was the Deputy Director of Security for Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico. During his tenure at Los Alamo, Mr. Leifheit served in a variety of leadership positions, including Group Leader, Program Manager, and Deputy Division Leader. Prior to joining the Department of Energy in 1995, Mr. Leifheit served in the USAF, retiring in 1994. His experience in the Air Force focused on nuclear security matters for a wide variety of Air Force missions, including nuclear alert aircraft, weapons storage areas, and missile field security.
Mr. Leifheit holds a Masters Degree in International Relations from Troy State University and a Bachelors Degree in Business Management from the University of Maryland, as well as an Associates Degree in Industrial Security. He is a graduate of the FBI National Academy and a graduate of the USAF Police Administration Institute.
John Matter is Manager of the International Security Projects Department at Sandia National Laboratories and he is also Program Manager for international physical protection work at Sandia funded by the DOE/NNSA Office of International Regimes and Agreements. He has broad experience and interests in domestic and international physical protection, including system design, development, evaluation, implementation, performance testing, and training. In his current international physical protection focus he is leading, managing, or participating in several activities for technical guidance, training, and collaboration. He participated in the development of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series implementing guide for Design Basis Threat and is currently involved with revision of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. In the training area he is Course Director for the International Training Course on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials and has been an instructor for other regional and national training courses. He is involved in several bilateral physical protection technical collaborations with other Member States and participates in U.S. interagency exchanges with States holding U.S.-origin nuclear materials. John earned technical degrees in engineering, electrical engineering, and optical sciences from Swarthmore College, the University of Illinois, and the University of Arizona, respectively. He is a registered Professional Engineer and was President of the Institute of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management during 2003-2004.
Steve Mladineo is a nonproliferation expert with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who provides support to the National Nuclear Security Administration in Washington. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, and has earned M.A. degrees in Political Science, and National Security and Strategic Studies. Prior to joining PNNL, he was Associate Dean of Faculty at the National War College. He has published several works in his field, and is currently Chair of the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.
Following a career in the Army, Mr. Price joined what is now the Office for Civil Nuclear Security (OCNS) in 1987. OCNS regulates the security of UK civil nuclear facilities, nuclear material in transport and sensitive nuclear information. He has been its Deputy Director since 1994. Following 9/11, he was heavily involved in the revision of all UK nuclear security legislation and regulations. He has worked extensively on international nuclear security matters, both at a bilateral level and through the IAEA. He has led a number of IPPAS missions since this service commenced in 1996 and represented the UK in both the revision of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3 and 4. He is currently Chair of the Working Group established at the IAEA to produce a draft Revision 5 of this document. He represented the UK at all the meetings which led to the Amendment of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material being adopted in 2005. He has been a member of DG IAEA's Advisory Group on Nuclear Security (AdSec) since its formation in 2002. In recognition of both is national and international work, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2004 Queen's Birthday Honours List.
Mr. Togasaki earned his bachelor's degree for aeronautics and astronautics at Tokai University in 1992. Also in 1992, Mr. Togasaki started working at the Science and Technology Agency (now, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). From 1992-1994 Mr. Togasaki was responsible for international affairs of Atomic Energy, including Pu transportation for Monju, first breeder reactor, from France to Japan. From 1994-2002 Mr. Togasaki was responsible for safety regulation of nuclear facilities and nuclear material transport, including research reactors, nuclear material handling facilities, reprocessing plant and nuclear power plant, investigation of criticality accident occurred at Tokai-mura in 1999. Mr. Togasaki also worked at International Atomic Energy Agency as safeguards inspector from 2002 to 2006. Since 2006, Mr. Togasaki has been responsible for the regulation of physical protection of research reactor and nuclear material handling facilities for the U.S. Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology.
European Commission DG-Tren
Dr. Elizabeth Turpen
Dr. Turpen joined the Stimson Center in 2001 to establish the Senate component of the Security for a New Century congressional study group. Prior to joining the Center, she served as Legislative Assistant for Senator Pete Domenici, responsible for defense, nonproliferation, and foreign affairs. Previously, she was a consultant on nonproliferation policy, US-Russian programs, and the national security implications of technology advances for Aquila Technologies Group. Dr. Turpen also has extensive teaching and lecturing experience. She holds a PhD from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and a BA from the University of New Mexico.
The Cooperative Nonproliferation Program encourages action by Congress to secure nuclear materials, dismantle existing weapons, and provide new employment for former weapons scientists. Building on a program of research, analysis, and public education, this project also leverages existing networks of private-sector actors to raise awareness of the value of CNP initiatives. Dr. Turpen also co-directs the Security for a New Century (SNC) program, a bipartisan study group series designed to educate Congressional staff about the complex security challenges now facing US policymakers.
Meggen Watt is Senior Advisor in the Office of Weapons of Mass Destruction - Terrorism, in the International Security and Nonproliferation Bureau at the U.S. Department of State. She manages the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, a cross-cutting strategic framework for action to prevent, detect, and/or respond to a nuclear event.
Ms. Watt's key interest in multilateral diplomacy in the nuclear nonproliferation and international security fields has over the past fifteen years included work on: nonproliferation and safeguards for the International Atomic Energy Agency's Office of External Relations; nuclear export controls for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, based at DOE/NNSA in Washington, DC; and, since 2002, negotiations with Russia and the Group of Eight on plutonium disposition, for the Department of State. Ms. Watt served as senior advisor on national security matters to Energy Secretary Bodman in 2005. She holds an MA from the Monterey Institute of International Studies and a BA from Washington University in St. Louis.
Amy Whitworth is the NNSA Materials Control and Accountability Program Manager and Acting Office Director of the Office of Field Integration in the Office of the Associate Administrator for Defense Nuclear Security at the U.S. Department of Energy. Amy has been involved in Materials Control and Accountability at various levels ranging from the field and DOE Headquarters for the past 18 years.
Martha Williams is a Senior Physical Scientist in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Division of Fuel Cycle Safety and Safeguards, working in the areas of domestic material control and accounting (MC&A) and international safeguards. Ms. Williams began her career in the nuclear industry in 1980 in the MC&A organization at Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee, where she rose to the position of Supervisor of the MC&A Statistics Group. She holds BA and MS degrees in mathematics and has taught mathematics and statistics at the undergraduate level.
Ms. Williams joined the NRC in 1988 as a physical scientist with responsibility for MC&A inspection and licensing at fuel cycle facilities. In 1992 she accepted the position of Safeguards Statistician in the IAEA Department of Safeguards, Division of Concepts and Planning. In 2000 she returned to the NRC. In 2005 she was awarded a Meritorious Service Award by the NRC.
Ms. Williams has served on and participated in activities of various ANSI Standard committees. She currently represents NRC on the ANSI-N15 Technical Standards Committee and serves as Chairperson of the ANSI-N15.8 Subcommittee. During the 1990’s, she served terms as Secretary, Treasurer, and President of the INMM’s Vienna Chapter. She was elected a Fellow of the INMM in 2007 and is currently serving as a Member-at-Large on the INMM Executive Committee.
U.S. Department of Energy
Mr. Yokoyama began working in the Coast Guard of Japan in 1991 after graduation from Coast Guard Academy. He served on patrol vessels three times during his 6-years as a coast guard officer and was involved in many kinds of missions. Mr. Yokoyama transferred to Ministry of Foreign affairs, and was then sent to the office of Consulate General in Makassar, Indonesia from 2002-2005. After 3 years of duty there, he went back to the Coast Guard of Japan . In 2008 Mr. Yokoyama transferred to his present position in the "Civil Nuclear Security Office" for the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.